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佛法与你 第三课 什么是佛教

2011-11-27 08:14| 发布者: admin| 查看: 950| 评论: 0|原作者: 达摩难陀尊者

摘要: 佛 法 与 你Buddhism For You(第 三 课)什么是佛教English byBuddhist Missionary Society MalaysiaVen. Dr. K. Sri DhammanandaTranslated byTheravada Samadhi Education Associatio马来西亚佛教弘法会.达摩难陀 ...

佛 法 与 你

Buddhism For You

(第 三 课)

什么是佛教

English by

Buddhist Missionary Society Malaysia

Ven. Dr. K. Sri Dhammananda

Translated by

Theravada Samadhi Education Associatio

马来西亚佛教弘法会.达摩难陀长老英文原着

原始佛法三摩地学会编译 Why Does The Tree Blossom? / 树为什么会开花?

There are causes for all human suffering, and there is a way to end them. / 人们的苦都是有某些因缘造成的,因此一定有方法灭除它们。

Everything in the world arises and persists as a result of a vast concurrence of causes and conditions. And everything will change and pass away when the causes and conditions for its arising and persistence change. / 当很多的因缘具足的时候,世间万法就会『生起』并『持续存在』。而当它生起与持续存在的因缘改变的时候,每件事物就会『变化』与『灭去』。

The seasons come and go. The fruit trees blossom in spring, bear fruits in summer, shed their leaves in autumn, and remain bare in winter, until the next spring comes. / 季节来了又去。果树春天开花,夏天结果,秋天落叶,而冬天光秃,直到来年的春天。

The, fruit trees blossom and bear fruits because of conditions that lead to their blooming and fruiting. Blossoms do not appear unconditioned, nor does a fruit appear by itself. / 果树开花结果是因为有促使它们开花结果的因缘条件。花不会没任何因缘条件就开放,果子也不会自己生出来。

Like the meshes of a net which are connected to one another, everything in this world is connected by a series of causes and conditions. / 就像网子,是由网孔一个接一个而形成,世间的每一样事物,也是由各种因缘条件一个接一个而形成。

Everything has its arising and passing away; nothing can be permanent without change. This is an eternal law propounded by the Buddha: Sabbe Sankhara Anicca - All conditioned things are impermanent and subject to change. / 每件事物都会有生灭;没有任何事物可以永恒存在而没有变化。这是佛陀提出的永恒真理:『诸行无常(Sabbe Sankhara Anicca.)』——所有因缘条件和合而成的事物都是无常变化的。

To believe that things can last forever is a mistake called the Theory of Permanence; to believe that things completely disappear is a mistake called the Theory of Nor-existence. / 相信事物能永恒持续存在是错误的,这称之为『常论』;而相信事物会完全地断灭也是错误的,这称之为『断灭论』。

These are only appearances observed by defiled human eyes and people become attached to appearances. The essential nature of things is free from all discriminations and attachments. / 这些只是染污之人的肉眼以及执着于表相的人所观察到的外表现象而已。事实上,任何事物的本质是离一切分别和执着的。

Since things are created by a series of causes and conditions, there is no permanency in them. As a result of the constantly changing of appearances, things are liken to a mirage and a dream. To identify this passing life for the changeless life of truth is a delusion. / 因为所有事物都是由各种因缘条件和合而成的,所以都没有恒常性。由于表相持续变化,任何事物就宛如海市蜃楼和一场幻梦,把这样短暂的人生误认为永恒不变的真实人生是一种迷惑妄想。

But ignorant people assume that this world is something permanent and worth clinging to, and act upon that assumption. As their acts are based on error, they will only be led into harm and suffering. / 但是无知的人认定这个世间是永恒而可以执取的,且依这样的认定来行动生活。由于他们的行动建立在错误的基础上,所以最后得到的结果只有伤害和痛苦。

A wise man, recognizing that the world is but an illusion, does not act as if it were real, and is free from suffering. / 一个明智的人知道这个世间只不过是一个幻影,他的一切行为表现不会仿佛世间是真实的,因此他能解脱诸苦。

WHAT BUDDHISM IS / 什么是佛教Lesson 3. / 第三课Don't you feel bewildered sometimes, not knowing just what to believe? One day, you read from an advertisement about a self-proclaimed `pine messenger' who urges you to embrace his creed. Next week, a friend tells you about a faith healer who cures diseases `miraculously' and claims that his way is the only way to salvation. / 有时候,你是否觉得很困惑,不知道究竟该相信什么?也许有一天,你看到了一篇宣传,有人自称为‘神的使者’,且敦促你信奉他的教义信念。也许下个星期,有个朋友来告诉你,有个宗教信仰医疗师能奇迹般地治愈疾病,并宣称他的方法才是解脱的唯一道路。

Then comes a sect of a religious group who warns you against the Devil who is fooling people through false teachers. Accept the authority of his scriptures you are told. His way is the only way. / 然后又来了一个宗教团体的某个宗派,警告你要对抗某个恶魔,说他那里都是邪师说法愚弄人们,然后要你接受他们经典的权威,同时也声称他的方法才是唯一的道路。

Along comes another sect of the same religion who tells you that they are the true followers because they understand the word as well as the spirit of the scriptures. / 随后,又来了同一个宗教团体的另一个宗派,他们告诉你他们才是真正的信徒,因为只有他们才真正通达世间的实相以及经典的真实义和精神。

Your common sense tells you that if everyone claims that his is the `only way', all of them cannot be completely correct at the same time. / 你的常识告诉你:如果每个人都声称他的是『唯一的道路』,那么,他们就不可能同时是正确的。

Who is right then? How can we tell who and to what extent each is right? / 既然如此,究竟谁才是正确的呢?我们如何能辨别谁是正确的以及有几分正确呢?

1. Free Inquiry / 1. 自由质问

The Kalamas, inhabitants of a small town called Kesaputta, approached the Buddha with a similar problem. They were confused with the teachings of the many religious teachers who passed their town. All these teachers spoke well of themselves and ill of others. / 葛拉玛人—一个叫做羇舍子小镇的居民—他们带着同样的问题去见佛陀,他们对许多来到该镇的宗教导师的教导感到很困惑, 因为这些导师全都说自己的才是最好的,而其它的都不好。

Did the Buddha give them another set of dogmas and dismiss the doctrines of others as false? No. Instead he gave them this unique advice the Kalama Sutta, which is often regarded as the `Charter of Free Inquiry'. It reflects the Buddhist spirit of thought and investigation. / 佛陀有另外给他们一个权威的教义吗?有驳斥其它教派的学说都是错误的吗?没有!佛陀反而给他们一个独特珍贵的建言——葛拉玛经,这一部经被视为是‘自由质问的宣言’,它反映了佛教思想和研究的精神。

quot;Yes, Kalamas, it is proper that you leave doubt, that you have perplexity, for a doubt has arisen in a matter which is doubtful. Now, do not be led by reports, or tradition, or hearsay. Be not led by the authority of religious texts, nor by mere logic or inference, nor by considering appearances, nor by the delight in speculative opinions, nor by seeming possibilities. nor by the idea: `this is our teacher'." / 「葛拉玛人啊!你们有疑虑是正常的,你们有迷惑也是理所当然的。因为面对一件让人可疑困扰的事情,是自然会产生怀疑迷惑的(换句话说,你们不必因为不信而内心不安)。葛拉玛人!你们听着:『

01. 不可因为「常常听人这么传说」就信以为真。(或不实谣言故。) 02. 不可因为「是大家遵奉的传统」就信以为真。(或误谬荒诞故。) 03. 不可因为「是普遍相信的报告」就信以为真。(或难免疏漏故。) 04. 不可因为「是有经典作依据的」就信以为真。(所载非无疑故。) 05. 不可因为「符合于逻辑的推测」就信以为真。(逻辑有时穷故。) 06. 不可因为「符合于常识的判断」就信以为真。(常识非真常故。) 07. 不可因为「符合于类比的推论」就信以为真。(物类各有道故。) 08. 不可因为「和自己的观点吻合」就信以为真。(或成见偏见故。) 09. 不可因为「符合的机率非常高」就信以为真。(或挂万漏一故。) 10. 不可因为「是导师或权威所说」就信以为真。(仰慕失理智故。)

※What can we learn from this advice? / 我们从这个建言能学到什么?

There are good reasons why we should heed his advice. Some religious groups coin slogans to be repeated over and over again like what is done in an advertisement until a person simply succumbs to those suggestions. / 很多很好的理由告诉我们:彪们应该听从佛陀的建言。一些宗教团体制造一些标语,然后像打广告一样反复地播放,直到人们完全屈从于那些建言为止。

Take heed. Dictators and political indoctrinators know that if a lie is repeated many times over authoritatively, people will begin to believe it to be true. / 请留心!独裁者和政客们都知道:一则谎言只要假藉权威重复多次,人们慢慢就会相信它是真的。

Do not blindly believe a tradition or the sacred scriptures. A tradition may lose its meaning through the ages. Sacred scriptures are not free from interpolations, additions and deletions made by pious theologians and scholars. / 不要盲目地相信传统或神圣的经典,因为传统可能在时间的迁流当中失去了它的真实意义,而圣典也免不了会被虔诚神学家和学者加以窜改、添加与删减。

The Buddha warned us against logic and opinions. The highest truth is beyond the ability of an untrained human mind to reason out logically and understand. Supramundane experiences cannot be understood by mundane logic. It is only after a person has attained insight through mental purification that he can understand the supramundane. / 佛陀提醒我们不要轻信逻辑和见解,为为终极真理不是凡夫之心依逻辑推论就能了解的,出世间的体证不是世间逻辑所能通达的,只有在一个人依清净心获得智慧洞见之后才能通达出世间法。

Man is a hive of opinions. If an idea agrees with the opinion he is holding, he accepts it. Otherwise, he rejects it. It is very difficult for him to learn new things or broaden his outlook. He is a prisoner of his opinions. / 人们总是有一堆的见解,如果有个观念和自己的见解相同,他就会接受它, 否则,就会拒绝它。这种人很难学习新的事物或者拓展自己的观点,他变成了自己见解的囚犯。※How then do we know what to accept or to reject? /我们如何能知道该接受什么或拒绝什么?

This piece of advice is so good that we should bet them carved on marble and hung above every doorway. The Buddha said: / 佛陀的这个建言真的太宝贵了,我敢打赌他们一定把它刻在大理石上而且挂在家家户户的门上。佛陀说:

quot;But. Kalamas, when you yourself know what is bad, blameworthy and censured by the wise, abandon those things. When you yourself know these things are good, not blameworthy, butpraised by the wise, accept and practise them." Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said. / 「葛拉玛人!当你自己确切知道:‘某些事物是不好的、错的、被明智者谴责的’,那么你们就应当舍弃它们。当你自己确切知道:‘某些事物是好的、对的、被明智者赞扬的’,那么你就应当采信并依之修学。』」以上是我所说,而且对于我所说的,你们也当依此原则抉择之。」

We should always consider carefully before doing or accepting a thing. Ask ourselves: Is this a wholesome thing? When performed, does it bring happiness to ourselves as well as others in both the short run and long run? Is this an action which wise people would do without hesitation? / 我们在做或接受一件事物之前应该要仔细地考虑清楚。问问我们自己:这是一件有益的事物吗?做了会带给自己和别人、现在与将来都快乐吗?这是明智的人毫不迟疑就会去做的一个行为吗?

The Buddha was open-minded about other religions and did not accuse them of willful deceit. There are good teachings in other religions too. He advised us: "If you find truth in any religion, accept that truth." / 佛陀对其他的宗教是心胸开放的而且没有指控他们是恶意的欺骗。在其他的宗教里也有很好的教导。佛陀劝勉我们:「如果你在任何的宗教发现了真理,都应该接受那个真理。」我们不能因为宗教不同而拒绝他们的真理,更何况真理不是只有佛教才有,真理是没有宗教派别的局限的。

Even his own doctrines were not excluded from critical investigation. He said, "One must not accept my teachings from reverence but first try them as gold is tried by fire." / 即使是佛陀自己宣说的教义也不能被排除于前述十项严格的检核之外。他说:"任何人都不能因为尊敬我而接受我的教导,你们应当像用火检验黄金那样,严格的检验我的教导。"

Hence, the freedom of thought encouraged in Buddhism is unique in the history of religions. The Buddha gave us this freedom because we need it to gain emancipation from suffering. This goal is not attained as a reward given by a pine grace but as a result of our own realizations of the truth. / 因此,在整个宗教历史中,唯独只有佛教是鼓励全面自由思想的。佛陀鼓励我们不要盲目轻信而且可以自由质疑,因为我们需要用它来解脱苦恼。苦恼的解脱不是神佛恩赐就能得到的,而是要我们自己精进思惟修学,最后通达真理才能获得的。

2. The Practical Approach / 2. 实际的方法Buddhism and science bear great similiarities in areas of ideals and general principles. Both advocated free inquiry and freedom from authoritarian dogma. / 佛教和科学在目标和大原则上是相似的。两者都主张自由质疑以及没有权威的教条。

The Buddha discouraged the vain search after speculative issues which do not lead to the release of suffering. He considered questions such as the origin and end of the universe to be a wilderness of opinions. / 佛陀不鼓励徒劳无益地穷究一些不能解脱苦恼的推测性问题。他认为宇宙的起源和结束这一类的疑问是徒增迷惑的知见。

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